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Name Version Created
Functional aspects of meningeal lymphatics in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:03:03.718424
A role for APP in Wnt signalling links synapse loss with β-amyloid production. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:04:37.884290
FK506-Binding Protein 12.6/1b, a Negative Regulator of [Ca2], Rescues Memory and Restores Genomic Regulation in the Hippocampus of Aging Rats 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:09:39.059616
Identification of a novel aspartic protease (Asp 2) as beta-secretase 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:11:44.126044
Posiphen as a candidate drug to lower CSF amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-b peptide and s levels: target engagement, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in humans 0.1.0 2019-02-27 16:11:44.417394
Estrogen receptor-α is localized to neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:11:57.120251
Amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) in Alzheimer’s disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:11:58.050677
Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking, Processing, and Function 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:11:59.074651
Effects of peptides derived from BACE1 catalytic domain on APP processing 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:11:59.434046
APP processing in Alzheimer's disease 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:13:40.534508
Proteolytic processing of Alzeimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:13:42.416728
albuquerque2009 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:13:46.488811
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signalling: roles in Alzheimer's disease and amyloid neuroprotection. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:13:50.629951
The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: The Founding Father of the Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channel Superfamily 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:13:52.120863
Activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors as potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:13:53.676370
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Nicotinic Cholinergic Mechanisms of the Central Nervous System 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:01.518015
Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:16:02.903816
The CRF1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin, reverses isolation-induced up-regulation of dopamine D2 receptors in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens of fawn-hooded rats 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:03.579988
Alzheimer's Disease: Targeting the Cholinergic System 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:05.224392
Interplay of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:39.785691
M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer’s disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:41.068280
Identification and Characterization of a G Protein-binding Cluster in alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:42.667314
Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease pathology and treatment 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:16:44.555357
A role for b2* nicotinic receptors in a model of local amyloid pathology induced in dentate gyrus 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:45.569644
Nicotinic α4β2 acetylcholine receptors and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:45.834326
Nuclear receptors as therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:47.479877
NACHO Mediates Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function throughout the Brain 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:48.477142
Neural Systems Governed by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Emerging Hypotheses 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:16:49.928729
Cholinergic system during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease: therapeutic implications 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:49.011315
Nicotinic Receptor Abnormalities of Alzheimer’s Disease: Therapeutic Implications 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:50.271424
B-973, a novel piperazine positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:50.676574
The alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonist 4OH-GTS-21 protects axotomized septohippocampal cholinergic neurons in wild type but not amyloid-overexpressing transgenic mice 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:50.917217
Selective activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by PHA-543613 improves Aβ25-35-mediated cognitive deficits in mice 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:51.215175
Nicotinic receptors: allosteric transitions and therapeutic targets in the nervous system 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:52.613678
Chaperoning α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:53.724010
Up-regulation of Nicotinic Receptors by Nicotine Varies with Receptor Subtype 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:54.095975
Naturally-expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:54.572895
Neuronal and Extraneuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:55.672615
Anti-inflammatory activity of anatabine via inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:56.478525
Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Anatabine 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:57.172912
A chaperome subnetwork safeguards proteostasis in aging and neurodegenerative disease. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:20:57.755792
The Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Sometimes the Chicken, Sometimes the Egg 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:00.339336
Perilous journey: a tour of the ubiquitin–proteasome system 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:01.751921
The Biology of Proteostasis in Aging and Disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:02.954973
A Quantitative Chaperone Interaction Network Reveals the Architecture of Cellular Protein Homeostasis Pathways 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:26.664755
Alpha-synuclein oligomers: a new hope 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:28.171480
Structural and functional properties of prefibrillar α-synuclein oligomers 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:28.540837
Corticotropin-releasing factor regulates caspase-3 and may protect developing zebrafish from stress-induced apoptosis 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:28.782669
The effect of CRH and its inhibitor, antalarmin, on in vitro growth of preantral mouse follicles, early embryo development, and steroidogenesis. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:28.991106
In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of Antalarmin, a Nonpeptide Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Receptor Antagonist: Suppression of Pituitary ACTH Release and Peripheral Inflammation 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:29.186958
Abnormal Alzheimer-like phosphorylation of tau-protein by cyclin-dependent kinases cdk2 and cdk5 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:29.649562
MMP-9 and MMP-2 Contribute to Neuronal Cell Death in iPSC Models of Frontotemporal Dementia with MAPT Mutations 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:30.615791
Promoting the clearance of neurotoxic proteins in neurodegenerative disorders of ageing 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:21:33.100673
Progress and Developments in Tau Aggregation Inhibitors for Alzheimer Disease 0.1.0 2019-02-27 16:22:58.818193
Interplay of pathogenic forms of human tau with different autophagic pathways 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:22:59.998765
Multivalent cross-linking of actin filaments and microtubules through the microtubule-associated protein Tau 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:00.972604
Tau clearance mechanisms and their possible role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:03.233941
Analysis of Isoform-specific Tau Aggregates Suggests a Common Toxic Mechanism Involving Similar Pathological Conformations and Axonal Transport Inhibition 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:23:04.480011
Alzheimer's disease-type neuronal tau hyperphosphorylation induced by A beta oligomers 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:05.115212
Adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 64627 alleviates axonopathy caused by human Tau ΔK280 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:05.784204
Identification of the Tau phosphorylation pattern that drives its aggregation 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:06.189035
Extracellular Monomeric and Aggregated Tau Efficiently Enter Human Neurons through Overlapping but Distinct Pathways 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:23:06.695264
Activity-dependent tau protein translocation to excitatory synapse is disrupted by exposure to amyloid-beta oligomers 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:07.337195
Anti-aggregant tau mutant promotes neurogenesis 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:07.931827
Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:08.341163
Tau degradation: the ubiquitin-proteasome system versus the autophagy-lysosome system. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:08.960689
TFEB enhances astroglial uptake of extracellular tau species and reduces tau spreading 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:09.479620
Molecular chaperones and regulation of tau quality control: strategies for drug discovery in tauopathies 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:10.715799
Tau protein aggregation is associated with cellular senescence in the brain 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:12.384027
Tau Antibody Targeting Pathological Species Blocks Neuronal Uptake and Interneuron Propagation of Tau in Vitro 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:13.180624
Neuropathogenic role of adenylate kinase-1 in Aβ-mediated tau phosphorylation via AMPK and GSK3β. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:13.704454
Tau Internalization is Regulated by 6-O Sulfation on Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:23:14.340071
Tau oligomers-Cytotoxicity, propagation, and mitochondrial damage 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:15.578081
Imbalances in the Hsp90 Chaperone Machinery: Implications for Tauopathies 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:17.019021
Tau Protein Hyperphosphorylation and Aggregation in Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Tauopathies, and Possible Neuroprotective Strategies 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:18.639513
Neuronal uptake and propagation of a rare phosphorylated high-molecular-weight tau derived from Alzheimer’s disease brain 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:23:19.363126
Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease. 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:23:20.254439
Pseudophosphorylation of tau at S422 enhances SDS-stable dimer formation and impairs both anterograde and retrograde fast axonal transport. 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:20.730252
Tau oligomers and tau toxicity in neurodegenerative disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:21.348281
Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Tau in Alzheimer’s Disease:from Mechanisms to Therapy 1.0.1 2019-02-27 16:23:23.109407
Extracellular Tau and Its Potential Role in the Propagation of Tau Pathology 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:23.979842
Tau Biochemistry 1.2.5 2019-02-27 16:23:25.281502
TAU and Interaction Partners 1.2.5 2019-02-27 16:23:28.127661
Tau Effect on Mitochondria 1.0.3 2019-02-27 16:23:29.416538
Tau Modifications 1.9.5 2019-02-27 16:23:43.071783
Inflammasome activation and innate immunity in Alzheimer’s disease 1.0.2 2019-02-27 16:23:47.824260
Activation and regulation of the inflammasomes 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:49.354725
The role of inflammasome in Alzheimer’s disease 1.0.3 2019-02-27 16:23:51.037226
Inflammasome Involvement in Alzheimer’s Disease 1.0.0 2019-02-27 16:23:52.213754
Amyloid-Binding Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ABAD) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:30:52.539195
Anatabine ameliorates experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:36:29.879540
Anatabine lowers Alzheimer's Aβ production in vitro and in vivo 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:36:31.067007
Anatabine Attenuates Tau Phosphorylation and Oligomerization in P301S Tau Transgenic Mice 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:36:31.506059
Discriminative Stimulus Properties of S(−)-Nicotine: “A Drug for All Seasons 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:36:32.672505
Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer ’ s Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:43.725047
Silencing of PMT expression caused a surge of anatabine accumulation in tobacco 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:44.033515
Oxidative stress in health and disease: The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 activation 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:46.388953
Phosphatase: PP2A structural importance, regulation and its aberrant expression in cancer 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:48.204641
Assembly and structure of protein phosphatase 2A 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:49.323481
Protein phosphatase 2A dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:51.414746
Axonal Transport, Tau Protein, and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:52.503806
PP2A and Alzheimer Disease 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:53.243397
Tau interactome mapping based identification of Otub1 as Tau deubiquitinase involved in accumulation of pathological Tau forms in vitro and in vivo 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:53.904572
Model systems of protein-misfolding diseases reveal chaperone modifiers of proteotoxicity 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:54.543682
Alzheimer’s disease and the autophagic-lysosomal system 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:56.560174
The Ubiquitin–Proteasome System and the Autophagic–Lysosomal System in Alzheimer Disease 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:43:59.704155
Molecular Chaperone Functions in Protein Folding and Proteostasis 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:01.488533
Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system: collaborators in neuroprotection 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:03.090518
Molecular chaperones and proteostasis regulation during redox imbalance 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:04.581803
Protein aggregation can inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chaperone competition 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:05.117689
Inhibition of tau aggregation in a novel Caenorhabditis elegans model of tauopathy mitigates proteotoxicity 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:06.795659
Extracellular low-n oligomers of tau cause selective synaptotoxicity without affecting cell viability 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:07.427921
Tau Trimers Are the Minimal Propagation Unit Spontaneously Internalized to Seed Intracellular Aggregation 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:07.833235
Inert and seed-competent tau monomers suggest structural origins of aggregation 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:08.412900
The Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) Regulates Alzheimer Amyloid-β Production and Tau Hyperphosphorylation* 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:09.319421
Screening of a neuronal cell model of Tau pathology for therapeutic compounds 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:10.243539
Caenorhabditis elegans models of tauopathy 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:11.534594
Carboxy terminus heat shock protein 70 interacting protein reduces tau-associated degenerative changes 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:12.611191
Alzheimer's disease pathological lesions activate the spleen tyrosine kinase. 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:13.200081
Tau in physiology and pathology 1.0.0 2019-03-15 15:44:15.579027
New insights into the role of microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs in most common neurodegenerative diseases 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:26:57.143076
RelB/p50 complexes regulate cytokine-induced YKL-40 expression 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:26:58.136137
Increased NF-κB signalling up-regulates BACE1 expression and its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease. 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:26:59.186629
Nuclear Factor Kappa-light-chain-enhancer of Activated B Cells (NF-κB) - a Friend, a Foe, or a Bystander - in the Neurodegenerative Cascade and Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:01.025946
Phytochemicals as inhibitors of NF-κB for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:02.900011
Upstream regulators and downstream effectors of NF-κBinAlzheimer's disease 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:04.841281
Significance of NF-κB as a pivotal therapeutic target in the neurodegenerative pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:06.155648
mTOR-Related Brain Dysfunctions in Neuropsychiatric Disorders 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:09.104510
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein deficiency models synaptic and developmental phenotypes of autism-like syndrome 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:11.835960
The autism/neuroprotection-linked ADNP/NAP regulate the excitatory glutamatergic synapse 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:12.596666
Clinical presentation of a complex neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in ADNP 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:13.080120
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is an alcohol-responsive gene and negative regulator of alcohol consumption in female mice 1.0.0 2019-05-15 22:27:13.402814
Pathological missorting of endogenous MAPT/Tau in neurons caused by failure of protein degradation systems 1.0.1 2019-05-15 22:27:15.199141
Heme Curation 0.0.1-dev 2019-09-10 13:50:35.331210


Please choose the seeding type your want to use for the query. Note: it's possible to use multiple seeding types.

Seeding by Nodes

This method of seeding will acquire the given nodes and expand around them using given seed method.

Use Case: The leukemia drug, nilotinib, triggers cells to get rid of faulty components - including the ones associated with several brain diseases. In 2015, Georgetown University Medical Center published findings that the drug had a helpful effect on patients in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Though it is currently unknown, a search of the paths between this drug and these diseases could provide insight to nilotinib's mechanism of action.

Seeding by Name Search

This method acquires the nodes whose names are superstrings of the search query

Use Case: Users may be interested in a whole class of nodes related to a certain name, such as th MGI, RGD, HGNC, and HGNC Families related to AKT1.

Seeding by Authorship

This method acquires the nodes and edges asserted by the given authors and expands around their neighborhoods to show peripheral knowledge.

Use Case: Users may be interested in the representation of their own work, their colleagues' work, and their favorite publications in the knowledge assembly. For users that are new to a given field, this is an excellent research tool to identify what papers to read next.

Seeding by Citation

This method acquires the nodes and edges asserted by the given citations and expands around their neighborhoods to show peripheral knowledge.

Use Case: Users may be interested in the representation of their own work, their colleagues' work, and their favorite publications in the knowledge assembly. For users that are new to a given field, this is an excellent research tool to identify what papers to read next.

Seeding by Annotation

This method of will acquire edges matching any of the given annotations.

Use Case: The Amyloidogenic Cascade describes the processes resulting from amyloid beta peptides deposition in the brain; and is a central to Alzheimer Disease (AD) pathology. Using the NeuroMMSig functional annotations, this sub-network can be extracted and its periphery can be investigated to identify novel overlaps with other canonical pathways implicated in AD.


Please choose any filters, enrichments, or transformations you want to apply to the query. For a list of available functions, please see here.

Use Case: You might want to collapse all protein, RNA, and miRNA nodes to their corresponding gene to simplify visualization and exploration.


BEL Commons is developed and maintained in an academic capacity by Charles Tapley Hoyt and Daniel Domingo-Fernández at the Fraunhofer SCAI Department of Bioinformatics with support from the IMI project, AETIONOMY. It is built on top of PyBEL, an open source project. Please feel free to contact us here to give us feedback or report any issues. Also, see our Publishing Notes and Data Protection information.

If you find BEL Commons useful in your work, please consider citing: Hoyt, C. T., Domingo-Fernández, D., & Hofmann-Apitius, M. (2018). BEL Commons: an environment for exploration and analysis of networks encoded in Biological Expression Language. Database, 2018(3), 1–11.